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They also undertook political careers that echoed the language of eastern BNA. Together they were founders of the Confederation League in , using their newspapers to promote the idea of union with Canada while directly lobbying administrations in Victoria, Ottawa, and London.
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Meeting at the Yale Convention that year, they set out their goals: responsible government in the colony, reciprocity with the United States, and austerity measures to address colonial debt. Musgrave had served as Governor of Newfoundland when its assembly failed to endorse union with the rest of British North America. Beginning in , it was believed that Fenians were mustering in San Francisco with the goal of completing the American coastline from California to Alaska. Pro-annexationist voices in the colony were muted, however, until an Annexationist Petition was sent to Washington, DC in by a group of Victorian merchants.
By this time, it was clear to British Columbians that Britain could not be trusted not to abandon the colony. I by no means agree that it is good general policy to try to swell the English population in B. Columbia [sic]. The fewer Englishmen that are committed to the place, the better it may prove to be in no distant times. As to hoping that we can by Emigrants round Cape Horn outnumber the natural flow of Emigrants from California and the United States, one might as well make the old experiment of keeping out the Ocean with a mop.
Pressure grew to consider the Canadian option. Governor Musgrave selected a delegation to send to Ottawa, consisting of: Dr. Carrall, a physician from Goderich, Ontario, who had practiced in Nanaimo before moving to Barkerville in the late s; Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, Joseph Trutch, an Englishman with a familial connection to Musgrave; and Dr. The party had significant interests in the outcome of the talks with the Canadians.
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Helmcken, for his part, played the role of delegation skeptic. As a Cariboo resident, he had a keen sense of the necessity for improved infrastructure and of its cost. Unlike the Confederation League, these men were never enthusiastic supporters of responsible government.
The Canadians accepted an inflated population figure for the colony on which financial and electoral issues would be based , but not as inflated as the delegation proposed. On the last point, the language of the British Columbia Terms of Union, the Terms suggests that Trutch very effectively misrepresented his approach to reserve lands:.
The charge of the Indians, and the trusteeship and management of the lands reserved for their use and benefit, shall be assumed by the Dominion Government and a policy as liberal as that hitherto pursued by the British Columbia Government shall be continued by the Dominion Government after the Union.. The delegation had hoped for a wagon road; they were promised a railway. No one, however, had given sufficient thought to the business of crossing the Rockies and reaching the coast. They had given themselves a decade to get it done and the clock was ticking loudly in British Columbia from the very start.
Resistance to the whole idea of Confederation was perhaps strongest among the old British elite in Victoria and New Westminster. These were people with strong HBC ties and few connections to Canada. They were also staunchly opposed to responsible government. Macdonald of the problems brewing in BC politics.
The present Legislative Assembly is perhaps taken together as inferior a body of the sort as could well be imagined; and if the Province is to be unmistakably [ sic ] given up to their tender mercies without the interposition of experienced guidance and some extent repression from Ottawa, no thoughtful mind can view the picture without the gravest apprehension.
However appalled the senators and the MP may have been, the Assembly looked far more British than Canadian. British North America-born politicians remained a minority in the Legislature until the 20th century. According to midth century historian, Walter Sage, Canadians were regarded contemptuously as tight-fisted spendthrifts who were more likely to send money home to families in the East than leave it in the local stores.
Helmcken shared some of this anti-Canadian sentiment. Figure 2. Skip to content Increase Font Size.
A Sto:lo woman, weaving baskets, n. On the last point, the language of the British Columbia Terms of Union, the Terms suggests that Trutch very effectively misrepresented his approach to reserve lands: [Article] Nothing but the Terms Resistance to the whole idea of Confederation was perhaps strongest among the old British elite in Victoria and New Westminster.
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Key Points British Columbia was a sparsely populated, geographically huge colony with concentrated settlements that were mostly devoted to mining. Size and the expense of building roads, as well as fear of American expansionism, turned the colony toward the Canadians. This unilateral move unwittingly deflated German plans for a Berlin- Mexico City-Tokyo axis by removing the emotional rallying point for joint anti—U.
Germany and Japan have been at war since August , so their cooperation against the US in Mexico raises eyebrows in Washington. Reuthe had traveled widely in South America before the war for Telefunkengesellschaft and worked at the important Sayville, New York radio communications station until fired by US authorities as a security risk. His superiors ordered him to Mexico, the keystone of German strategic communications in the Americas. Germany's top influencer in Carranza's government was allegedly Minister of Communications Mario perhaps Mauro Mendez. Fletcher would serve capably in tumultuous Mexico City until January Minister to Chile, —, and future chairman of the Republican Party in And he was the right man in the right place in he preserved the bloody peace between Mexico and the United States after the US Congress declared war on Germany in April Robertson visited his acquaintance J.
Kafopnek was responsible for unloading and transporting Japanese arms shipments to Mexico City. Kafopneck told Robertson that the first Japanese consignment consisted of 1, tons of machinery for manufacturing rifle cartridges, artillery shells, and rounds for rapid firing guns. Also, Kafopneck told Robertson that another Japanese ship was due soon bringing more machinery, field pieces and ammunition of various calibers. Angry mobs in Brazilian cities sack German businesses and the German minister is sent packing. President Woodrow Wilson addressing Congress on April 6, Edgar Hoover about Censors like Lieutenant Charles Belknap read incoming and outgoing international mail.
Steel, W. Grace, United Fruit and several other companies hunch over a large map of the continent to hash out the details. Gordon Auchincloss was, perhaps, the father of US financial intelligence. Photo: Yale Library. The aircraft, biplane "A No.
Pilot Felipe Carrranza in dark flight suit flirts with the Salvadoran ladies. President Francisco Bertrand declared martial law, and no one was allowed to travel without an internal passport. German consulates were closed down, and citizens of the Central Powers were ordered to behave themselves. War hysteria circulated a rumor that a banana boat had been sunk by a commerce raider on the run from La Ceiba to New Orleans.
US Legation in Honduras, nerve center of the Allied war effort. Chancellery on the right, residence on the left. This outrage compelled Brazil's congress to revoke her neutrality in the war between the United States and Germany. June 18, - Montevideo Uruguay issued a statement that she would not treat as a belligerent any American state that was at war with non-American powers.
This convoluted declaration essentially meant the end of Uruguayan neutrality. Peru and Bolivia soon issued statements in support of Uruguay. Germany would become the patron of Central American liberation and unification. Minister von Eckardt certainly mulled over the opportunities offered by the Valdez proposal German-Argentine relations had sunk to their lowest point ever.
The situation was so dismal that Ambassador von Luxburg sent a message to Berlin asking where he should go when Argentina evicted him.
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At this critical juncture, a tidbit of human intelligence stabbed the gloom with a ray of hope. Yet, the episode provides a glimpse of the workings of agents of influence, spies and secret diplomacy. They sponsored conferences in academic guise by anti—U. Kurt Jahnke - German naval intelligence officer.